Tuesday, 30 October 2018

Reparation Debate at Durham University



The invite to speak at Durham University debating society came out of the blue. 

..........As an Independent Art and Cultural Historian and current work with the Institute of Commonwealth Studies on Black British History, you would certainly make an engaging and highly knowledgeable addition to the debate.

This houses believes:

Britain Owes Reparations to its Former Colonies
8:30pm Debating Chamber, Palace Green
Friday 12th October 

I was honoured and delighted to accept their invitation to speak at their debate.

The invite was particularly timely for me following my post on Scotland’s Dollar Academy where I described  its need for Reparation, in doing so recognising where the source of the funds that founded the Academy came from - John McNabb’s slavery earnings - it has a slave ship as the school’s badge.

The organisation and my reception was excellent, as was the hospitality of the Chairman and the Society

Me, Chairman Chris Clarke, Jason Hickel
The Speakers

Anthropologist, author, and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts. He has taught at the London School of Economics, the University of Virginia, and Goldsmiths London.

An Arts blogger who specialises in the Black African presence in Renaissance Europe, he is currently working with the Institute of Commonwealth Studies.

Director of the Asia Studies Centre at the Henry Jackson Society and an Adjunct Fellow at the Centre for Strategic and International Studies.

A second year law student at Durham , she stood in at last minute for the original speaker who had cancelled.

We, the speakers had a very agreeable pre debate dinner with Chris Clarke, chairman of the society. Tellingly, nobody accepted Chris’s generous offer of wine, we enjoyed water and polite, random witty conversation. Throughout the dinner there was an atmosphere of friendly competition - nobody over keen to share their position.


The Debate

Proposition Dr Jason Hickel
He argued from as factual , reality basis the North made and continues to make trillions of dollars from the South: for every 1$ of aid to the North , the South receives 24$ this needs to be redressed

Opposition Dr John Hemmings
He reasoned why pick on Britain , Britain is not alone there were other countries and empires who are are potentially guilty where do we stop, further it’s complex, how do manage’s who receives what and why. 

Proposition Michael Ohajuru (Me)
My argument was based on the the metaphor of slavery as a stab in the back - the removal of the knife is not enough - the wound needs to be healed. Reparation was needed to heal that festering wound in doing so address the social, cultural and economic imbalances caused by slavery. You can download my complete address here.

Opposition Roshni Gulati
Roshni argued it was unfair to single Britain out as there were others who had equally bad records of colonialisation. Further it would be demeaning even patronising to present day inhabitants with Reparation 

The Questions

Ireland, Thailand and others survived  colonialistaion and today thrive - why can’t others?
Don’t they already receive reparation via foreign aid ?
It would be impossible task to track down and pay all the descendants  
Isn’t it counter prodcutive to continue to make the dependant ?
Are they not better ways to help rather than punish Britain?

The Result

The Chairman invited the audience to vote by shouting Yay or Nay and the respective volumes would decide the winner. The debate prove too close to call on a volume only basis, it was impossible to decide so a division lobby was called. The result was 95 Nay  verses 100 Yay - Jason & I lost ! 

I believe we did have a gender win as the Yays certainly had an upper octave pitch and volume. However on reflection in a room of mostly white privileged young men I believe any Reparation argument would have been lost, might even go as far to say we had lost before we began. Nevertheless it was a great experience and many of those I spoke to afterwards enjoyed my input as I did their company as we argued into the night after the debate. #GreatExperience 

  










Sunday, 18 March 2018

Slavery Reparation Opportunity Discovered in the National Gallery

Johann Liss (c1622) Judith in the Tent of Holofernes , Oil on Canvas 128.5 x 99 cm
While doing my research on the National Gallery's Judith in the Tent of Holofernes, in preparation for an Image of the Black in London Galleries tour of the National Gallery, I was intrigued to find there is not one but two black presence connections to this work.

The first and the most obvious  black presence are the terrified, haunting eyes of its black maid staring at Judith, she holds the basket in which her mistress is placing the severed head of the eponymous general in the picture, Liss captures that look of horror in her eyes at the task in hand.

Johann Liss Judith in the Tent of Holofernes [Detail]
The second presence is not so apparent.

The painting was a gift to the National Gallery by the royal vet John Archibald Watt Dollar in 1933. He was educated at Dollar Academy (they only have the name in common) Scotland's leading private school and The Times 2018 Scottish Independent Secondary School of the Year. He went on to have an illustrious veterinary career.  Amongst several prestigious positions he held was as President of the Royal College of Surgeons, from his portrait he looks every inch a distinguished Edwardian gentlemen. It is his school - Dollar Academy - which provides the second black presence.

Dollar Academy was founded in 1818 by a gift from John MacNabb (1732 - 1802) who is described  on  the school's website as being a 'trader....[b]orn to a poor family,  [who] went to sea as a young boy and eventually made his fortune as a ship owner.   In his will he specified that the interest on half his estate (some £60 000 -worth several millions today) was to provide "a Charity or School for the parish of Dollar and shire of Clackmannan wheir [sic] I was born".' While The Gazetteer for Scotland describes Mc Nabb as a '[s]hip-owner and philanthropist.'  What both sites fail to mention is MacNabb's connections with slavery - the source of his benefaction. This omission  is rectified by his entry on  FlagsUpScotJam's website  which says : [MacNabb] is known to have sent out 4 ships called Friendship, Maria, Pitt and Struggler which acquired a total of 348 slaves [1]

Dollar Academy
Details of the trips made by the MacNabb's slave ships are to be found -  here - The Slave Ship Voyages Database and, he is also mentioned in University College London's Slavery Compensation Database so, the sources of MacNabb's wealth are well known and documented.

The Academy's prospectus talks about the ship in its logo as 'a symbol of the journey that many thousands have embarked upon'. It goes on to say  'Dollar sees as immensely precious the cargo of lives that it has borne over the years, and has helped to launch into the world of adulthood and its demands.'[2]
Dollar Academy Logo
The metaphor of MacNabb's Dollar Academy as a ship with its  'precious…cargo of lives'  is deeply ironical when its founder made his fortune transporting enslaved Africans by sea as part of the heinous triangular trade in which the cargo of enslaved where packed as shown in the infamous plan of the Brookes, slave ship showing how 454 enslaved Africans were accommodated on board one slave ship.

Detail from the Brookes Slave Ship Plan
Kenneth Lu's model, model, now in National Museum of American History (Smithsonian Institution) shows a typical slave ship in the early 1700s on the Middle Passage from Africa to America. To preserve their profits, captains and sailors tried to limit the deaths of the enslaved Africans from disease, suicide, and revolts. In the grisly arithmetic of the transatlantic slave trade, captains usually chose between two options: pack in as many people as possible and hope that most survive, or put fewer aboard, improve the conditions between decks, and hope to lose fewer to disease.

Kenneth Lu's Model of Slave Ship
I ask my tour groups (I've now done the tour a number of times) should Dollar Academy update its web site, the consensus response is yes, the source of MacNabb's funds should be noted. Most want action not words, maybe a scholarship aimed at BAME pupils. There are travel scholarships for Dollar Academy pupils there appears to be no scholarships for entrants from outside for example Eton's Kings scholarship. Also perhaps Georgetown University in USA presents a model, the institution was saved through the sale of 272 slave in 1832,  today the University offers an admissions edge to descendants of slaves as part of a comprehensive atonement for the University's historical ties to slavery. Maybe Dollar Academy could do similar for pupils of Afro-Caribbean descent?


This of course, is part of a much bigger wider, bigger debate on slavery reparation. The slave owners received compensation for the loss of property when slavery was abolished by Britain in 1833, the Slavery Compensation Database shows how that compensation was distributed amongst the owners of enslaved Africans and how that wealth is manifest to this day. The enslaved received nothing. That is why some form of reparation is only just and fair.

The challenges of reparation are evident from David Cameron's comment   that Jamaica 'should move on from painful legacy of slavery' in doing so ignoring calls for reparation. While Kehinde Andrew describes reparations challenges quoting Malcolm X 'if you stick a knife in my back nine inches and pull it out six inches, that’s not progress. If you pull it all the way out, that’s not progress. The progress comes from healing the wound that the blow made'. Kehinde argues Britain 'won’t even admit the knife is there'  

To conclude, acts like Georgetown University's  are a step on the way to healing the knife wound of slavery,  I would argue Dollar Academy can play its part in the healing process by recognition of the origins of its benefaction and offering places to those children of African descent with the intellectual capacity but not the economic resources,  in order that the Academy's 'precious…cargo of lives' actually reflects Dollar's origins and confronts the sobering irony found in its prospectus.



[1]  FlagsUpScotJam  
John McNabb was originally a poor boy from the parish of Dollar. He made his fortune at sea and became a rich London merchant. He is known to have sent out 4 ships called Friendship, Maria, Pitt and Struggler which acquired a total of 348 slaves in Senegambia and the Gold Coast and three of these ships went to Jamaica. Dollar Academy was founded through a bequest from his Will. The interests on his legacy, of some £40,000 on his death in 1802, was to be used for the provision of "a charity or school for the poor of the parish of Dollar wheir [sic] I was born".

[2] Dollar Academy Prospectus 
The ship is our school logo - a reminder of Captain John McNabb's own vessels that enabled him, at the end of the eighteenth century, to build up a fortune with which to found the school, which welcomed its first pupils in 1818. It is also a symbol of the journey that many thousands have embarked upon in the years that Dollar has been welcoming young people through its Bronze doors

The Latin motto says of the school: Juventutis veho fortunas - "I bear the fortunes of youth". Dollar sees as immensely precious the cargo of lives that it has borne over the years, and has helped to launch into the world of adulthood and its demands. That it has been instrumental in forming character and in developing talent is attested to by generations of former pupils, who not only return on a regular basis themselves, but send their children to be educated, and their children's children. Thus, links of deep affection are created, and maintained by the strong network of Former Pupils across not only the UK but the world itself.



Thursday, 21 December 2017

Dali's Three Kings


I was surprised to discover a version of The Three Kings by Salvador Dali - the Spanish Catalan painter best known for his surrealistic work, with its fantastic imagery and his flamboyant personality together making  him one of the best known artists of the period - the reason Hallmark cards commissioned him in 1959 to do a series of water colour Christmas card designs, one of which was The Three Kings.

Of the ten designs Dali submitted to Hallmark just two were actually produced as cards The Nativity and Madonna and Child, the remaining eight including The Three Kings are languishing in the Hallmark Archives.

Dali's three exotically dressed kings form an odd, disjointed composition as they follow a Platonic solid star in a barren rocky landscape, with the leading King's camel looking fearsomely aggressive while the Black King's camel holds its head high - aloof - indifferent to all around, while the remaining king's camel seems more horse than camel, the net effect is oddly disturbing!

The reasons not all Dali's designed became Hallmark Christmas cards was that they too, were equally troubling or odd mostly both! One image - Headless Angel Playing a Lute - was particularly disturbing but it clearly shows Dali's Renaissance influences as its source is Piero della Francesca work.

Left  Piero della Francesca (1470-5) The Nativity
Right Salvador Dali, Hallmark (1959 ) Christmas Card Design
Hallmark commissioned other noted artists to do Christmas card designs including Pablo Picasso, Paul Cezanne, Paul Gauguin, Vincent Van Gogh and Georgia O’Keeffe so maybe there are other Three Kings to be found in their archives, meanwhile we can enjoy the Dali's oddly disturbing Three Kings.

References
Washington Post. 2014. Salvador Dali Christmas cards. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2014/12/23/these-salvador-dali-christmas-cards-outraged-hallmark-shoppers-in-1960/?utm_term=.44a0ddc26eae. [Accessed 21 December 2017].

Wednesday, 27 September 2017

Runnymede 'Our Migration Story' Wins Award


Delighted to read that Runnymede 'Our Migration Story' web site is joint winner of the the Research Champion category in the Community Integration Awards 2017. My contribution was an African presence in thirteenth-century Britain.  It was a real pleasure to be part of the project which included so many great historians.  The judges had the following to say about the site:

'This project makes an important intervention in the much-needed conversation on migration, British colonial past and the legacy of the Empire. It challenges the history curricula and invites us to consider how the history of Britain is intermingled with the history of migration. This disrupts and unsettles the unhelpful, binary narratives around ‘Them and Us’, especially in the times of revival of nationalist sentiments in Britain.
It is a fantastic project, clearly with a massive involvement of historians, schools, and researchers, as well as with an excellent strategy of dissemination. It enriches the curriculum, makes research relevant and focuses on influencing future generations'.

Tuesday, 11 July 2017

Tiziano Vecelli and Oswald Boateng: Two Masters of Colour for the Brown Body

Titian and Colour
Portrait of Laura Dianti & Diana and Actaeon

Whilst selecting the pictures for a tour of the National Gallery part of  The Image of the Black in London Galleries series I was studying the black servant in the 1556-9 piece by Tiziano Vecelli  aka Titian Diana and Actaeon, when I was struck by Titian's use of orange set against the brown skin of Diana's servant,  orange and brown skin go together so well. I speak from experience as one of my favourite shirts was a bright vivid orange one by the acclaimed Savile Row tailor and fashion designer Oswald Boating (I am big fan), sadly the shirt was worn out through use some time ago but its memory lives on!

Oswald Boateng and Colour
Pictures from http://ozwaldboateng.co.uk/history

Oswald  is a master of colour,  especially those that  complement the black and the brown body. He uses not just oranges, but purples, greens, and yellows in his collections. Using himself as the muse for his ready to wear collection he creates some stunning looks, interworking ideas on colour and occasionally adding a African cloth to heightening the effect of his use of bright, vivid, almost acid colours.

Titian had a similar eye for colour five hundred years earlier when he choose that orange for that servant. That same sensitivity to colour can be seen in the multi coloured striped attire of the attendant in his 1520 Portrait of Laura Dianti. The little boy's multi striped costume contain not use any colours but all those colours that go so well with his brown skin.

So there we have two masters in their fields, one an artist the other a fashion designer and tailor, centuries and cultures apart yet coming to the same conclusion when selecting a colour palette to highlight the brown body,


Thursday, 13 April 2017

Unknown Black Portraits in a London Pub

Not the Renaissance but .......

The Harp (BARE Blog)

I’d forgotten pubs as idiosyncratically British as The Harp at Covent Garden still existed,  the Harp, was  especially interesting to me because of its black portraits.

Artist: Unknown, Sitter: Unknown, Date: Unknown 


I was introduced to The Harp at the close of  a very convivial lunch in St Martins Lane, my luncheon partner suggested a quiet pint in a local hostelry to complete the afternoon.

We walked down St Matins Lane and he insisted we turn into Brydges Place despite it being barely three feet wide. So narrow in fact we had to wait for an oncoming lady before we could enter in single file down the slim passage. Turns out that this is London's narrowest alley

Artists: Unknown, Sitters: Unknown, Dates: Unknown 

We entered The Harp through its rear entrance. It was a sublime experience from the dark narrow passage into what seemed a vast light filled room after the dark passage - the bar of  The Harp, formally known as the Welsh Harp , it was renamed by its Irish owner Bridget Walsh, sadly now deceased.

Bridget’s art buying covered the Harp’s walls, there are portraits of men&women, young&old,  beautiful&ugly and black&white everywhere. I’m sure a knowing eye would recognise some of the sitters I was unable to recognise any.


Artist: Unknown, Sitter: Unknown, Date: Unknown 


I spotted at least four portraits of black people. Sadly none of the artists or sitters are named like all the other portraits on display.

I enjoyed an excellent beer delivered by very friendly bar staff. The Harp was CAMRA pub of the year in 2011 and maintains Bridget’s tradition of stocking a wide range of hand pulled specialist cask beers.

The afternoon at the Harp finished with some good old chat amongst some lovely paintings in a quintessential London pub - styled with the hand and eye of its landlady – a brilliant way and a recommended way to end any afternoon as well as a great alternative to the near by National Portrait Gallery, if you’re interested in portraits!




Saturday, 11 February 2017

John Blanke Plaque at Greenwich Naval College ?


Following my visit to Greenwich Naval College visitors centre yesterday I am pleased to report that the BBC's  Black and British : A Forgotten History plaque to commemorate John Blanke the black trumpeter to the courts of Henry VII and Henry VIII is in deed on display. However you may miss it as it is just to the left of the main entrance, high up amongst the centre's awards from Trip Adviser, English Tourist Board and others - see images below.





The choice of location was perhaps done in haste as it not at clear as to how or why the BBC's plaque fits in with its surroundings in the Naval College visitors centre. This despite the fact the central  image with Henry VIII jousting from the 1511 Westminster Tournament Roll document in which John Blanke appears is a matter of  feet away, no connection is made to the Tournament Roll which made John Blanke famous.

Detail of information screen by the Tilting Yard exhibit (Tournament Roll highlighted)


On the Tournament Roll - total length sixty feet - John Blanke's image is close to the scene depicted   - about four feet away from. It would seem to make good sense to bring the information screen (see detail below) by the Titling Yard exhibit closer to the BBC's plaque in some way, perhaps updating the information screen with John Blanke's image and why the BBC chose the Naval College as the site for its comparative plaque.

Detail from the Westminster Tournament Roll
Highlighting Henry VIII and John Blanke
It is good to have the plaque on display at Greenwich Naval College, even better to explain why it is there making the connection between John Blanke, the Naval College and the visitor centre's exhibits.

You can follow the plaque's story through the Twitter Hashtag #JohnBlankePlaque and keep up with all things John Blanke at JohnBlanke.com